Proletarian and Gendered Mass Migrations connects the 19th- and 20th-century labor migrations and migration systems in global transcultural perspective. It emphasizes macro-regional internal continuities or discontinuities and interactions between and within macro-regions. The essays look at migrant workers experiences in constraining frames and the options they seize or constraints they circumvent. It traces the development from 19th-century proletarian migrations to industries and plantations across the globe to 20th- and 21st-century domestics and caregiver migrations. It integrates male and female migration and shows how women have always been present in mass migrations. Studies on historical development over time are supplemented by case studies on present migrations in Asia and from Asia. A systems approach is combined with human agency perspectives.